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Insects are a major limiting factor in commercial vegetable production.Minor insect damage lowers the crop’s value because the market demands clean, unblemished produce.Regardless, insects with an incomplete life cycle are unique in that they hatch from eggs into tiny nymphs that resemble the adult stage.
The hole made in this way is so small that it cannot be seen with the unaided eye, but the withdrawal of the sap results in either minute white, brown or red spotting on leaves, fruits and/or twigs; leaf curling; deformed fruit; or a general wilting, browning and dying of the entire plant.Control measures for internal feeding insects are most effective if aimed at adults or the immature stages prior to their entrance into the plant.A number of internal feeders are small enough to find comfortable quarters and an abundance of food between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf. Gall insects sting plants and cause them to produce a structure of deformed tissue.Adult beetles also may damage plant parts, so two damaging stages may exist.Figure VI-1 depicts growth stages for insects having a complete life cycle.
Moths and butterflies also have a complete life cycle similar to beetles except that the damaging stage is the larvae or worm stage which usually feeds on the stems, leaves or fruits.